Charles Chaplin Biografie zu Charlie Chaplin
Sir Charles Spencer „Charlie“ Chaplin jr., KBE, war ein britischer Schauspieler, Regisseur, Drehbuchautor, Schnittmeister, Komponist, Filmproduzent und Komiker. Chaplin gilt als erster Weltstar des Kinos und zählt zu den einflussreichsten Komikern. Sir Charles Spencer „Charlie“ Chaplin jr., KBE, (* April in London; † Dezember in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Schweiz) war ein britischer Schauspieler. Charles Spencer Chaplin Jr. (* 5. Mai in Beverly Hills, USA; † März in Hollywood, USA) war ein US-amerikanischer Schauspieler und das erste. Wie Charlie Chaplin lebte. Charles Spencer Chaplin wurde am April in London geboren. Nachdem sich seine Eltern kurz nach seiner Geburt trennten. Charlie Chaplin und seine Frau Oona. Schauspieler, Regisseur. April: Charles Spencer Chaplin wird als Sohn der Schauspielerpaars Charles.
Charles Chaplin ist ein britisch Schauspieler, Regisseur. Entdecke seine Biographie, Details seiner Karriere-Jahre und alle News. reporteintegradoargos.co - Kaufen Sie Charlie Chaplin - Slapstick Collection Vol. 1 (9 Kurzfilme auf 1 DVD) günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Wie Charlie Chaplin lebte. Charles Spencer Chaplin wurde am April in London geboren. Nachdem sich seine Eltern kurz nach seiner Geburt trennten.
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Januar stand nun nichts mehr im Wege. Chaplins erster Langfilm wurde zu einem Riesenerfolg, der in den nächsten drei Jahren in rund 50 Ländern vertrieben wurde.
Die Dreharbeiten zum nächsten Film, ''Pay Day'', unterbrach Chaplin schon nach wenigen Tagen, um im September zu einer Europareise zu starten, die ihn erstmals seit neun Jahren wieder in seine Heimat führte.
Chaplin wurde von der Begeisterung für seine Person überwältigt. Im November setzte er seine Arbeit an '' Pay Day'' fort, der sein letzter Zweiakter werden sollte.
April uraufgeführt. Erneute Streitigkeiten mit ''First National'' über die Vermarktung verzögerten aber die Premiere bis zum Februar Griffith, einen unabhängigen Filmverleih zu gründen, um so einem drohenden Monopol der etablierten Studios entgegenzutreten.
Februar wurden die Verträge für die Gründung von ''United Artists'' unterzeichnet. Mit seinem ersten Projekt für ''United Artists'' erfüllte sich Chaplin den lang gehegten Wunsch, einen ernsten dramatischen Film zu drehen.
Chaplin selbst gab sich nur einen wenige Sekunden dauernden Cameo-Auftritt in der Verkleidung eines Gepäckträgers.
Er hatte die Schauspielerin während seiner Europareise in Berlin kennengelernt und traf sie im Oktober wieder, als sie sich auf ihr Hollywood-Debüt vorbereitete.
Im Januar gaben beide ihre Verlobung bekannt, die Beziehung zerbrach jedoch bereits wenige Monate später.
Die Premiere von ''Die Nächte einer schönen Frau'' am 1. Das Publikum konnte sich aber mit dem für Chaplin untypischen Melodram nicht anfreunden.
Lita war zu diesem Zeitpunkt von Chaplin schwanger. Sie wurde noch Mutter eines weiteren Sohnes Chaplins Sydney Earle , bevor die Ehe in einem aufsehenerregenden Prozess geschieden wurde.
Die musikalische Tonspur komponierte er in beiden Fällen selbst. Da Chaplin in ''Moderne Zeiten'' die Auswüchse der Industrialisierung und des Kapitalismus kritisiert, wurde ihm in den USA von konservativen Kreisen eine antikapitalistische und kommunistische Einstellung vorgeworfen.
Privat war er nun mit seiner Filmpartnerin Paulette Goddard liiert, die er heimlich heiratete. Chaplins satirische Slapstick-Parodie auf den Faschismus richtete sich symbolisch auch gegen die US-Staatsmacht und den Militarismus allgemein.
Chaplins Film passte ihnen also gar nicht ins Konzept. Präsident Roosevelt selbst wollte den Film, für Chaplin wäre ein akut drohendes Verbot des Streifen letztlich zu riskant gewesen.
Der Film war für Chaplin wirtschaftlich besonders erfolgreich. Chaplin hat die Angriffe von Nationalsozialisten, die ihn fälschlicherweise als Juden titulierten aus Solidarität mit den Verfolgten erst viel später richtiggestellt.
Für Hannah Arendt, die Chaplin ebenfalls für einen Juden hielt, war er ein Beispiel einer verborgenen Paria-Tradition im Judentum, die wieder zu beleben ist.
Mit ihr fand Chaplin sein Eheglück. Die beiden heirateten am Juni , Oona war damals 18 Jahre alt. Edgar Hoover, ein erbitterter Gegner Chaplins, versuchte, diesem die Aufenthaltsgenehmigung zu entziehen.
Er selbst sah sich als Weltbürger. Charles Chaplin war liberal, kritisch und Pazifist und passte damit nicht in das gängige Bild, das die Regierung von einem Filmstar erwartete.
Chaplin war in der Bevölkerung überaus beliebt und parodierte hintergründig auch die amerikanische Gesellschaft und wurde dadurch dem Staatsapparat verdächtig.
Ihm wurde mangelnde Verfassungstreue vorgeworfen. Anlass war die Weltpremiere seines dort spielenden Films Rampenlicht.
Dieser beschloss daraufhin, in Europa zu bleiben. Nach Beendigung des Films traten bei ihm immer häufiger körperliche Beschwerden auf; sein früherer robuster Gesundheitszustand wich in den letzten Jahren einer zunehmenden Gebrechlichkeit.
März im Haus seiner Mutter Lita Grey an einer Thrombose, die sich als Folge einer nachlässig versorgten Verletzung entwickelte, die Charles sich bei einem Sturz zugezogen hatte.
Und je mehr er darüber nachdachte, desto mehr fand er Parallelen zwischen sich und dem deutschen Diktator.
Sie waren im gleichen Jahr geboren, sogar im gleichen Monat — nur vier Tage auseinander — und beide hatten während ihrer Kindheit die Armut gründlich kennengelernt.
Ihre Schicksale aber waren grundverschieden. The s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and his popularity declined rapidly.
He was accused of communist sympathies, and some members of the press and public found his involvement in a paternity suit, and marriages to much younger women, scandalous.
Chaplin wrote, directed, produced, edited, starred in, and composed the music for most of his films.
He was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture.
His films are characterised by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramp's struggles against adversity.
Many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. He received an Honorary Academy Award for "the incalculable effect he has had in making motion pictures the art form of this century" in , as part of a renewed appreciation for his work.
There is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street , Walworth , in South London.
Hannah, the daughter of a shoemaker,  had a brief and unsuccessful career under the stage name Lily Harley,  while Charles Sr.
The child was taken by Dryden at six months old, and did not re-enter Chaplin's life for 30 years. Chaplin's childhood was fraught with poverty and hardship, making his eventual trajectory "the most dramatic of all the rags to riches stories ever told" according to his authorised biographer David Robinson.
The boys were promptly sent to Norwood Schools, another institution for destitute children. I was hardly aware of a crisis because we lived in a continual crisis; and, being a boy, I dismissed our troubles with gracious forgetfulness.
In September , Hannah was committed to Cane Hill mental asylum — she had developed a psychosis seemingly brought on by an infection of syphilis and malnutrition.
Hannah entered a period of remission but, in May , became ill again. Between his time in the poor schools and his mother succumbing to mental illness, Chaplin began to perform on stage.
He later recalled making his first amateur appearance at the age of five years, when he took over from Hannah one night in Aldershot.
He later wrote: "[she] imbued me with the feeling that I had some sort of talent". In the years Chaplin was touring with the Eight Lancashire Lads, his mother ensured that he still attended school but, by age 13, he had abandoned education.
The manager sensed potential in Chaplin, who was promptly given his first role as a newsboy in Harry Arthur Saintsbury 's Jim, a Romance of Cockayne.
Chaplin's comic performance, however, was singled out for praise in many of the reviews. Saintsbury secured a role for Chaplin in Charles Frohman 's production of Sherlock Holmes , where he played Billy the pageboy in three nationwide tours.
Chaplin soon found work with a new company, and went on tour with his brother — who was also pursuing an acting career — in a comedy sketch called Repairs.
By the time the act finished touring in July , the year-old had become an accomplished comedic performer. Meanwhile, Sydney Chaplin had joined Fred Karno 's prestigious comedy company in and, by , he was one of their key performers.
Karno was initially wary, and considered Chaplin a "pale, puny, sullen-looking youngster" who "looked much too shy to do any good in the theatre.
It was a big success, and Chaplin received considerable press attention. Karno selected his new star to join the section of the company, one that also included Stan Laurel , that toured North America's vaudeville circuit.
A representative who had seen his performances thought he could replace Fred Mace , a star of their Keystone Studios who intended to leave.
Chaplin's boss was Mack Sennett , who initially expressed concern that the year-old looked too young.
Chaplin strongly disliked the picture, but one review picked him out as "a comedian of the first water". He described the process in his autobiography:.
I wanted everything to be a contradiction: the pants baggy, the coat tight, the hat small and the shoes large I added a small moustache, which, I reasoned, would add age without hiding my expression.
I had no idea of the character. But the moment I was dressed, the clothes and the makeup made me feel the person he was.
I began to know him, and by the time I walked on stage he was fully born. The film was Mabel's Strange Predicament , but " the Tramp " character, as it became known, debuted to audiences in Kid Auto Races at Venice — shot later than Mabel's Strange Predicament but released two days earlier on 7 February These ideas were dismissed by his directors.
Sennett kept him on, however, when he received orders from exhibitors for more Chaplin films. Caught in the Rain , issued 4 May , was Chaplin's directorial debut and was highly successful.
He joined the studio in late December ,  where he began forming a stock company of regular players, actors he worked with again and again, including Leo White , Bud Jamison , Paddy McGuire and Billy Armstrong.
She went on to appear in 35 films with Chaplin over eight years;  the pair also formed a romantic relationship that lasted into Chaplin asserted a high level of control over his pictures and started to put more time and care into each film.
Robinson notes that this was an innovation in comedy films, and marked the time when serious critics began to appreciate Chaplin's work.
During , Chaplin became a cultural phenomenon. Shops were stocked with Chaplin merchandise, he was featured in cartoons and comic strips, and several songs were written about him.
Freuler, the studio president, explained: "We can afford to pay Mr. Chaplin this large sum annually because the public wants Chaplin and will pay for him.
Mutual gave Chaplin his own Los Angeles studio to work in, which opened in March The Mutual contract stipulated that he release a two-reel film every four weeks, which he had managed to achieve.
With the new year, however, Chaplin began to demand more time. Chaplin was attacked in the British media for not fighting in the First World War.
Harper's Weekly reported that the name of Charlie Chaplin was "a part of the common language of almost every country", and that the Tramp image was "universally familiar".
In January , Chaplin was visited by leading British singer and comedian Harry Lauder , and the two acted in a short film together. Mutual was patient with Chaplin's decreased rate of output, and the contract ended amicably.
With his aforementioned concern about the declining quality of his films because of contract scheduling stipulations, Chaplin's primary concern in finding a new distributor was independence; Sydney Chaplin, then his business manager, told the press, "Charlie [must] be allowed all the time he needs and all the money for producing [films] the way he wants It is quality, not quantity, we are after.
A Dog's Life , released April , was the first film under the new contract. In it, Chaplin demonstrated his increasing concern with story construction and his treatment of the Tramp as "a sort of Pierrot ".
Associates warned him against making a comedy about the war but, as he later recalled: "Dangerous or not, the idea excited me.
After the release of Shoulder Arms , Chaplin requested more money from First National, which was refused.
Frustrated with their lack of concern for quality, and worried about rumours of a possible merger between the company and Famous Players-Lasky , Chaplin joined forces with Douglas Fairbanks , Mary Pickford , and D.
Griffith to form a new distribution company — United Artists , established in January They refused and insisted that he complete the final six films owed.
Before the creation of United Artists, Chaplin married for the first time. The year-old actress Mildred Harris had revealed that she was pregnant with his child, and in September , he married her quietly in Los Angeles to avoid controversy.
Norman Spencer Chaplin was born malformed and died three days later. Losing the child, plus his own childhood experiences, are thought to have influenced Chaplin's next film, which turned the Tramp into the caretaker of a young boy.
Chaplin spent five months on his next film, the two-reeler The Idle Class. The Pilgrim — his final short film — was delayed by distribution disagreements with the studio, and released a year later.
Having fulfilled his First National contract, Chaplin was free to make his first picture as an independent producer. In November , he began filming A Woman of Paris , a romantic drama about ill-fated lovers.
In real life, he explained, "men and women try to hide their emotions rather than seek to express them".
Chaplin returned to comedy for his next project. Setting his standards high, he told himself "This next film must be an epic!
The Greatest! With Georgia Hale as his leading lady, Chaplin began filming the picture in February Chaplin felt The Gold Rush was the best film he had made.
While making The Gold Rush , Chaplin married for the second time. Mirroring the circumstances of his first union, Lita Grey was a teenage actress, originally set to star in the film, whose surprise announcement of pregnancy forced Chaplin into marriage.
She was 16 and he was 35, meaning Chaplin could have been charged with statutory rape under California law.
It was an unhappy marriage, and Chaplin spent long hours at the studio to avoid seeing his wife. Before the divorce suit was filed, Chaplin had begun work on a new film, The Circus.
I was determined to continue making silent films I was a pantomimist and in that medium I was unique and, without false modesty, a master.
By the time The Circus was released, Hollywood had witnessed the introduction of sound films.
Chaplin was cynical about this new medium and the technical shortcomings it presented, believing that "talkies" lacked the artistry of silent films.
Chaplin was nonetheless anxious about this decision and remained so throughout the film's production. When filming began at the end of , Chaplin had been working on the story for almost a year.
It was a challenging production that lasted 21 months,  with Chaplin later confessing that he "had worked himself into a neurotic state of wanting perfection".
Chaplin finished editing City Lights in December , by which time silent films were an anachronism.
One journalist wrote, "Nobody in the world but Charlie Chaplin could have done it. He is the only person that has that peculiar something called 'audience appeal' in sufficient quality to defy the popular penchant for movies that talk.
City Lights had been a success, but Chaplin was unsure if he could make another picture without dialogue. He remained convinced that sound would not work in his films, but was also "obsessed by a depressing fear of being old-fashioned.
The group's original plan had been to provoke a war with the United States by assassinating Chaplin at a welcome reception organised by the prime minister, but the plan had been foiled due to delayed public announcement of the event's date.
In his autobiography, Chaplin recalled that on his return to Los Angeles, "I was confused and without plan, restless and conscious of an extreme loneliness".
He briefly considered retiring and moving to China. It was these concerns that stimulated Chaplin to develop his new film.
Modern Times was announced by Chaplin as "a satire on certain phases of our industrial life. Like its predecessor, Modern Times employed sound effects but almost no speaking.
She eventually divorced Chaplin in Mexico in , citing incompatibility and separation for more than a year.
The s saw Chaplin face a series of controversies, both in his work and in his personal life, which changed his fortunes and severely affected his popularity in the United States.
The first of these was his growing boldness in expressing his political beliefs. Deeply disturbed by the surge of militaristic nationalism in s world politics,  Chaplin found that he could not keep these issues out of his work.
It was this physical resemblance that supplied the plot for Chaplin's next film, The Great Dictator , which directly satirised Hitler and attacked fascism.
Chaplin spent two years developing the script,  and began filming in September — six days after Britain declared war on Germany.
The Great Dictator spent a year in production and was released in October Maland has identified this overt preaching as triggering a decline in Chaplin's popularity, and writes, "Henceforth, no movie fan would ever be able to separate the dimension of politics from [his] star image".
In the mids, Chaplin was involved in a series of trials that occupied most of his time and significantly affected his public image.
As Chaplin denied the claim, Barry filed a paternity suit against him. Edgar Hoover , who had long been suspicious of Chaplin's political leanings, used the opportunity to generate negative publicity about him.
As part of a smear campaign to damage Chaplin's image,  the FBI named him in four indictments related to the Barry case.
Most serious of these was an alleged violation of the Mann Act , which prohibits the transportation of women across state boundaries for sexual purposes.
Barry's child, Carol Ann, was born in October , and the paternity suit went to court in December After two arduous trials, in which the prosecuting lawyer accused him of " moral turpitude ",  Chaplin was declared to be the father.
Evidence from blood tests which indicated otherwise were not admissible, [s] and the judge ordered Chaplin to pay child support until Carol Ann turned Media coverage of the paternity suit was influenced by the FBI, as information was fed to the prominent gossip columnist Hedda Hopper , and Chaplin was portrayed in an overwhelmingly critical light.
July , Michael John b. March , Josephine Hannah b. March , Victoria b. May , Eugene Anthony b.
August , Jane Cecil b. May , Annette Emily b. December , and Christopher James b. July Chaplin claimed that the Barry trials had "crippled [his] creativeness", and it was some time before he began working again.
Chaplin again vocalised his political views in Monsieur Verdoux , criticising capitalism and arguing that the world encourages mass killing through wars and weapons of mass destruction.
The negative reaction to Monsieur Verdoux was largely the result of changes in Chaplin's public image. Chaplin denied being a communist, instead calling himself a "peacemonger",  but felt the government's effort to suppress the ideology was an unacceptable infringement of civil liberties.
He should be deported and gotten rid of at once. Although Chaplin remained politically active in the years following the failure of Monsieur Verdoux , [v] his next film, about a forgotten music hall comedian and a young ballerina in Edwardian London, was devoid of political themes.
Limelight was heavily autobiographical, alluding not only to Chaplin's childhood and the lives of his parents, but also to his loss of popularity in the United States.
Filming began in November , by which time Chaplin had spent three years working on the story. This marked the only time the comedians worked together.
Chaplin decided to hold the world premiere of Limelight in London, since it was the setting of the film. McGranery revoked Chaplin's re-entry permit and stated that he would have to submit to an interview concerning his political views and moral behaviour to re-enter the US.
It is likely that he would have gained entry if he had applied for it. Whether I re-entered that unhappy country or not was of little consequence to me.
I would like to have told them that the sooner I was rid of that hate-beleaguered atmosphere the better, that I was fed up of America's insults and moral pomposity Because all of his property remained in America, Chaplin refrained from saying anything negative about the incident to the press.
I have been the object of lies and propaganda by powerful reactionary groups who, by their influence and by the aid of America's yellow press, have created an unhealthy atmosphere in which liberal-minded individuals can be singled out and persecuted.
Under these conditions I find it virtually impossible to continue my motion-picture work, and I have therefore given up my residence in the United States.
Chaplin did not attempt to return to the United States after his re-entry permit was revoked, and instead sent his wife to settle his affairs.
The next year, his wife renounced her US citizenship and became a British citizen. Chaplin remained a controversial figure throughout the s, especially after he was awarded the International Peace Prize by the communist-led World Peace Council , and after his meetings with Zhou Enlai and Nikita Khrushchev.
His son, Michael, was cast as a boy whose parents are targeted by the FBI, while Chaplin's character faces accusations of communism.
I hate government and rules — and fetters People must be free. Chaplin founded a new production company, Attica, and used Shepperton Studios for the shooting.
According to Robinson, this had an effect on the quality of the film. This severely limited its revenue, although it achieved moderate commercial success in Europe.
In the last two decades of his career, Chaplin concentrated on re-editing and scoring his old films for re-release, along with securing their ownership and distribution rights.
In America, the political atmosphere began to change and attention was once again directed to Chaplin's films instead of his views. It focused on his early years and personal life, and was criticised for lacking information on his film career.
Shortly after the publication of his memoirs, Chaplin began work on A Countess from Hong Kong , a romantic comedy based on a script he had written for Paulette Goddard in the s.
It was his first to use Technicolor and the widescreen format, while he concentrated on directing and appeared on-screen only in a cameo role as a seasick steward.
Chaplin suffered a series of minor strokes in the late s, which marked the beginning of a slow decline in his health.
Chaplin was initially hesitant about accepting but decided to return to the US for the first time in 20 years.
Although Chaplin still had plans for future film projects, by the mids he was very frail. By October , Chaplin's health had declined to the point that he needed constant care.
The funeral, on 27 December, was a small and private Anglican ceremony, according to his wishes. On 1 March , Chaplin's coffin was dug up and stolen from its grave by two unemployed immigrants, Roman Wardas, from Poland, and Gantcho Ganev, from Bulgaria.
The body was held for ransom in an attempt to extort money from Oona Chaplin. The pair were caught in a large police operation in May, and Chaplin's coffin was found buried in a field in the nearby village of Noville.
It was re-interred in the Corsier cemetery surrounded by reinforced concrete. Chaplin believed his first influence to be his mother, who entertained him as a child by sitting at the window and mimicking passers-by: "it was through watching her that I learned not only how to express emotions with my hands and face, but also how to observe and study people.
Simon Louvish writes that the company was his "training ground",  and it was here that Chaplin learned to vary the pace of his comedy.
Chaplin never spoke more than cursorily about his filmmaking methods, claiming such a thing would be tantamount to a magician spoiling his own illusion.
Until he began making spoken dialogue films with The Great Dictator , Chaplin never shot from a completed script.
Producing films in this manner meant Chaplin took longer to complete his pictures than almost any other filmmaker at the time. No other filmmaker ever so completely dominated every aspect of the work, did every job.
If he could have done so, Chaplin would have played every role and as his son Sydney humorously but perceptively observed sewn every costume.